0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve

Abnormal formation of the tricuspid valve with downward displacement of the root of the valve flap (or leaflet) into the right ventricle


See electrocardiography

ECG at rest

Electrocardiogram recorded while the patient is inactive


Ultrasonic examination of the heart


Electroencephalography, test using electrodes to measure and record the electrical activity of the brain

Eisenmenger syndrome

Late appearance of cyanosis in heart defects that were not originally cyanotic, e.g atrial or ventricular septum defect with severe pulmonary hypertension

Ejection fraction

The fraction of blood volume that is expelled from a cardiac chamber during systole. This is normally above 65%


Electrical changes in the beating heart are received via electrodes attached to the thorax and recorded in what is known as an electrocardiogram


Contact pads applied to the skin to conduct the electric currents present in the body (e.g. in ECG)

Electrophysiological examination

A test to measure electrical signals in the heart. Electrodes are inserted into the heart by means of a special cardiac catheter; allows the electrical activity of the heart muscle to be determined and provides evidence for analysing cardiac arrhythmias and establishing the effectivity of an AICD system


Sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot transported from one vessel and forced into a smaller one


An organism in its early stage of development (unborn foetus)

Endocardial cushion
also atrioventricular canal cushion

Special mounds of connective tissue that develop during the embryonic period; these later grow together to form the cardiac valves and the adjacent sections of atrial and ventricular septum

Endocardial cushion defects

Developmental disorders of the endocardial cushion. Term summarising a spectrum of cardiac defects ranging from minor atrial septum defects up to complete AV canal defects


Inflammation of the endocardium. Usually caused by bacteria from the blood streamlodging in areas of unnatural blood turbulence, can. destroy damaged cardiac valves

Endocarditis prophylaxis

It is recommended that patients with certain congenital or acquired heart defects be given a prophylactic course of antibiotics prior to surgery (e.g. dental treatment, tonsillectomy, abscess incision).


Innermost layer of the heart wall, tissue lining the interior of the heart


Thin layer of cells that lines cardiac cavities and blood vessels


Malformation of the upper eyelid


The layer of pericardium in contact with the heart


See Exercise ECG


Historical term relating to the application of various forms of intervention to improve hereditary traits

Exercise ECG
cardiac stress test

Electrocardiogram recorded during specific multistage load tests while cycling or running on a treadmill


Outside the heart

Extracorporeal circulation

Standard procedure in modern cardiac surgery: a cardiopulmonary bypass pump (heart-lung machine) that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery


A premature heartbeat that is independent of the normal rhythm
- supraventricular: impulse arising above the cardiac chambers, in the atrial area
- ventricular: impulse arising in the cardiac chambers

Author(s): Kinderherzstiftung, Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Sticker, Hermine Nock
Last updated: 2009-04-28