0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Nastrogastric feeding tube

The tube is placed in the nose and passes through the stomach

Neonatal specialist

Paediatrician with supplementary qualification to treat newborn infants

Neural tube defect

The human central nervous system comprises the brain and the spinal cord. It develops from the foetal neural tube, which is formed between the 22nd and 28th day of pregnancy. Incomplete closure of the neural tube can result in a number of different malformations of the central nervous system, for example, anencephaly or spina bifida aperta.

nitric oxide

Special gas that reduces pulmonary vascular resistance when small amounts are added to breathing air (e.g. in pulmonary hypertension)


A method of examination that does not directly penetrate the body, e.g. ECG, ultrasound; CT; opposite is invasive (e.g. cardiac catheter)

Norwood operation

A series of three operations used to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The pulmonary and systemic circulations are separated using the right ventricle as the only pumping chamber. First operation: creation of a common arterial connection with the right ventricle to stimulate pulmonary and systemic circulation. Second operation: partial separation of the circulations by creating a superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn astomosis). Third operation: completion of separation by connecting the inferior cava vein to the pulmonary artery (modified Faontan operation)

Nuclear spin tomography
magnetic resonance imaging MRI

Diagnostic procedure using magnetic fields without X-rays. Produces images of organs and structures of the body

NYHA classification

Categorisation of cardiac insufficiency along guidelines given out by the New York Heart Association. There are four stages of severity (I – IV) of cardiac insufficiency. Can only be applied to babies and infants in a modified form.
Stage I: disease is present without symptoms
Stage II: dyspnea from exceptional exertion
Stage III: dyspnea from light everyday exertion
Stage IV: dyspnea from all types of exertion, including during rest

Author(s): Kinderherzstiftung, Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Sticker, Hermine Nock
Last updated: 2009-04-28